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Research in the area of work and employment, traditionally described in Anglophone countries as Employment, Industrial or Labour Relations, or Labour Studies, was established as an independent field of study in the 1920s in the USA and subsequently after the Second World War in Britain and other Anglophone countries. Though originally established by US institutional labour economists, it soon came to be seen as an interdisciplinary field incorporating labour economists, industrial psychologists, personnel management scholars, industrial sociologists, and other social scientists working on labour issues. In continental Europe, and indeed in the rest of the world, research on work and employment has remained multi-disciplinary and thus a component of various social science disciplines, in particular political science and sociology (Frege, C. (2007) Employment Research and State Traditions: A Comparative History of Britain, Germany and the United States, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frege, Carola, and Kelly, John, eds. Comparative Employment Relations in the Global Economy. Florence, GB: Routledge, 2013. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 2 July 2016:2).
Let's see some trends about Russian migrations. Where have migrants left?
Where are migrants coming from?
Where everyone in the world is migrating—in one gorgeous chart
It’s no secret that the world’s population is on the move, but it’s rare to get a glimpse of where that flow is happening. In a study released in Science, a team of geographers used data snapshots to create a broad analysis of global migrations over 20 years.The study was conducted by three geographic researchers from the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital in Vienna. The researchers presented their data in five-year increments, from 1990 to 2010. Their research is unique, because it turned static census counts from over 150 countries into a dynamic flow of human traffic.
Migration data is counted in two ways: Stock and flow. “The stocks are the number of migrants living in a country,” says Nikola Sander, one of the study’s authors. Stock is relatively easy to get—you just count who is in the country at a given point of time. Flow is trickier. It’s the rate of human traffic over time.
Keeping accurate account of where people are moving has stymied the UN, and researchers and policy-makers in general, for a while. The European Union keeps good track of migrant flows, but elsewhere the data are sparse. Static measurements are plentiful, but it is hard to use them to get a picture of how people are moving on a broad scale, because each country has its own methodology for collecting census data.
Last year, however, the UN brought stock data from nearly 200 countries into harmony by erasing the methodological seams between them. To turn this stock data into five-year flow estimates, the researchers used statistical interpolations from stock data from the UN, taken mostly from 10-year country censuses, but supplemented with population registers and other national surveys.